There are so many good reasons to use LAD (Light Activated Disinfection) ...


Considering how easy it is to implement in the daily routine, there is actually no excuse for not getting started right away. The positive clinical feed-back of the LAD treatment is in itself a huge satisfaction. LAD may be used by dentists and hygienists.

The good reasons are as follows:

  1. Immediate effect

  2. Efficient against all microorganisms

  3. Dose depending effect

  4. No immunization effect

  5. Can be repeated unlimited

  6. No know side-effects



But let us have a look at the principle, it makes it easier to comprehend the advantages :


The principle


- The photo sensitizer bonds to the surface of the microorganisms
- The photo sensitizer absorbs light with a specific wavelengths, thus taking up energy
- This energy is released and reacts with O2, splitting that into either O- or O• , in common known
   as ROS (= Reactive Oxigen Specimen)
- ROS is highly reactive and destroys microbial celle membranes and inner structures instantly


The LAD principle is effective not only against bacteria but also other microorganisms such as vira, funghi and protozoa. The photo sensitizer used has much lower affinity for mammal cell membranes, which is why these are not affected by the reaction, and in practice why we see no side-effects.

The created reactive oxygen specimens (ROS) exist only very shortly ( few nano secunds) and are only transported over very short distances (few microns). This is also a reason why human cells are not affected - they are effective only where created, which is why the photosensitizer must bond to the membranes of the microorganisms to be destroyed. 


The 6 advantages of LAD treatment are :


1. Immediate effect.

“ You will feel much better tomorrow” is probably the most paraphrased sentence by doctors and dentists.
Imagine that the effect is immediate instead.
You have a patient in the chair with acute infection, pericoronitis perhaps. You treat it with LAD one or two minutes, and before the patient has left the chair he has no longer symptoms of infection. You may even decide to remove the molar right away.
The LAD effect is literally instantaneous with the active chemical process being in a fraction of a second.


2. Efficient against all microorganisms.

Can you imagine a product that kills ALL microorganisms, not only some bacteria, but all bacteria, and not only bacteria, but also vira and fungi?
Such a product would be a truly wonder-product  and of course it does not exists.
LAD is such a product, however with the limitation application of the therapy: 1) The fotosensitizer must be able to reach target microorganisms and 2) the light must be able to reach the fotosensitizer.
If you have access you will see results!


3. Dose depending effect.

Drugs are generally dose dependent, so nothing new here, BUT in this context it means that you can safely treat until the required dosage is reached. All microorganisms are (of course) not equally sensitive to LAD treatment. Simply put, it depends on their outer security perimeter (cell membranes)- the thicker and more complexed in structure, the more dosage is needed. However the basic principle remains: If you treat long enough you can kill all pathogen microorganisms!


4. No immunization effect.

One of the most significant threats in medicine is development of “superbugs”. Genetic principles dictates that some bacteria will develop resistance to any antibiotics over time. However when the action is in a fraction of a second that is not a risk.


5. Can be repeated unlimited.

This feature is a logical cause of the aforementioned and the fact that there are no side-effects, however it deserves to be repeated separately. Because, yes you could in principle choose to treat for example a periodontitis patient with massive doses of antibiotics, but what about next time? Can you repeat that every three to six months in a lifetime if necessary?
Of course not, and it should not be necessary either with LAD, BUT it is possible to use at every single visit if needed.


6. No side-effects.

There are no reported side-effects of the treatment. But why is that? because “normally” a potent treatment is associated with side-effects. The reason is clear: the photosensitizer does not bond to the surface of normal human cells, but to all microorganisms. The created very reactive oxygen specimens (ROS) have an extremely short life time (nano seconds). They destroy microorganisms because they are created in close proximity, as the photosensitizer bonds to the membrane.



Scientific articles where LAD has been used : 

1. Endodontic photoactivated disinfection using a conventional
light source: an in vitro and ex vivo study
Sebastian Schlafer, DDS,a Michael Vaeth,b Preben Hørsted-Bindslev, DDS,c
and Ellen V. G. Frandsen, Dr Odont, Aarhus, Denmark
Endod 2010;109:634-641).


2. Evaluation of Photodynamic Therapy Using a Light emitting Diode Lamp against Enterococcus faecalis in Extracted Human Teeth
Alejandro Rios, DDS,* Jianing He, DMD, PhD,* Gerald N. Glickman, DDS, MS, MBA, JD,*
Robert Spears, PhD,† Emet D. Schneiderman, PhD,† and Allen L. Honeyman, PhD† (J Endod


3. Effect of photoactivated disinfection with a light-emitting diode on bacterial species and biofilms associated with periodontitis and peri-implantitis
Sigrun Eick DMDa,!, Giedre Markauskaite a,Sandor Nietzsche PhDb, Oliver Laugisch DMDa,
Giovanni E. Salvi Professora, Anton Sculean Professora.


4. Light-activated disinfection using a light-emitting diode lamp in the red spectrum: clinical and microbiological short-term findings on periodontitis patients in maintenance.
A randomized controlled split-mouth clinical trial
Claudio Mongardini & Gian Luca Di Tanna & Andrea Pilloni. Lasers Med Sci DOI 10.1007/s10103-012-1225-x.


TO NON-SURGICAL TREATMENT.A Courval, A Mathieu, O. Huck, H. Tenenbaum, J-L Davideau, Depratment of Peridontology, Dental Faculty, University of Strasbourg, France.


6. Effects of root debridement and adjunctive photodynamic therapy in residual pockets of patients on supportive periodontal therapy: A randomized split-mouth trial.
Goh EX1, Tan KS2, Chan YH3, Lim LP4. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2017 Jun;18:342-348. doi: 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2017.03.017. Epub 2017 Mar 31.


7. Effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on the counts of salivary Streptococcus mutans in children with severe early childhood caries.
Fekrazad R1, Seraj B2, Chiniforush N3, Rokouei M4, Mousavi N3, Ghadimi S5. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2017 Jun;18:319-322. doi: 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2017.03.007. Epub 2017 Mar 27.


8. A comparison between effect of photodynamic therapy by LED and calcium hydroxide therapy for root canal disinfection against Enterococcus faecalis: A randomized controlled trial.
Asnaashari M1, Ashraf H2, Rahmati A3, Amini N4. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2017 Mar;17:226-232. doi: 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2016.12.009. Epub 2016 Dec 28.


9. Effect of photoactivated disinfection on bond strength of root canal filling.
Ok E1, Ertas H, Saygili G, Gok T.J Endod. 2013 Nov;39(11):1428-30. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2013.05.002. Epub 2013 Aug 31.


10. In vitro evaluation of the cytotoxicity of FotoSan™ light-activated disinfection on human fibroblasts.
Gambarini G1, Plotino G, Grande NM, Nocca G, Lupi A, Giardina B, De Luca M,Testarelli
Med Sci Monit. 2011 Feb 25;17(3):MT21-5.


11. Poster:
Comparison of Probiotics Combined with Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy 
in Periodontal Treatment 
Main goal in periodontal treatment is the reduction or suppression of pathogens causing periodontal destruction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological and clinical outcomes of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) alone or combined with probiotics as an adjuvant to scaling and root planning (SRP). 
Europerio 9, June 20 - 23, 2018, Amsterdam 
M. Patyna, J. Deschner, A. Kasaj 
Department of Periodontology and Operative Dentistry, University Medical Center, Mainz, Germany 


12.Photodynamic therapy reduced residual deep periodontal
pockets during active periodontal therapy: a 6-months split mouth
randomized clinical trial. Journal of Clinical Periodontology. DRAFT